Autophagy and Fasting : POTENTIAL HEALTH BENEFIT CHAIN YOU MUST NEED AND PRACTICE:

ISO Hand . Book Comments 3 July 21, 2019

Our body’s  alive cells  has been eating our damaged/ ill/cancer cells by molecular mechanism during Fasting/Ramadan /Exersise and Makes Renew our body is called Autophagy.

Autophagy is generally considered as a process to supply nutrients by self-digestion for cells to survive starvation. However, autophagy, along with the proteasome system, is also involved in the turnover of cellular components under normal conditions.

Autophagy meaning “self-devouring” / self-swallowing, self-eating, self-consuming / is the natural, regulated mechanism of the cell that disassembles unnecessary or dysfunctional components. It allows the orderly degradation and recycling of cellular components.

Autophagy is a self-digesting mechanism responsible for removal of damaged organelles, malformed proteins during biosynthesis, and nonfunctional long-lived proteins by lysosome. … The molecular mechanism of autophagy involves several conserved Atg (autophagy-related) proteins.

Autophagy is an intracellular degradation system that delivers cytoplasmic constituents to the lysosome. … Autophagy consists of several sequential steps—sequestration, transport to lysosomes, degradation, and utilization of degradation products—and each step may exert different function.

The word autophagy originates from the Greek words auto-, meaning “self”, and phagein, meaning “to eat”. Thus,autophagy denotes “self eating”. This concept emerged during the 1960’s, when researchers first observed that the cell could destroy its own contents by enclosing it in membranes, forming sack-like vesicles that were transported to a recycling compartment, called the lysosome, for degradation. Difficulties in studying the phenomenon meant that little was known until, in a series of brilliant experiments in the early 1990’s, Yoshinori Ohsumi used baker’s yeast to identify genes essential for autophagy. He then went on to elucidate the underlying mechanisms for autophagy in yeast and showed that similar sophisticated machinery is used in our cells.

Ohsumi’s discoveries led to a new paradigm in our understanding of how the cell recycles its content. His discoveries opened the path to understanding the fundamental importance of autophagy in many physiological processes, such as in the adaptation to starvation or response to infection. Mutations in autophagy genes can cause disease, and the autophagic process is involved in several conditions including cancer and neurological disease.

How work Autophagy

Our body also has the innate ability to clean bad cells and toxins out through a recycling process of autophagy in order to maintain homeostasis. Autophagy is a cellular cleansing process that enables the body to get rid of old cells and damaged protein that it no longer needs and re-use anything that is still good – and then, creates new cells to replace the old. When the body responds to heightened levels of stress as a result of intermittent fasting or exercise, the autophagy pathway process kicks into gear.

When Does Autophagy Occur:

The main way autophagy occurs in the body is through nutrient deprivation. It occurs within the cells of everything from the brain to the liver, muscles and skin.  Starting with sequestration, transport to lysosomes, degradation and utilization of degradation products, each sequential step is also vital to the autophagy process.  The level of activity is measured by the increasing amount of autophagosomes in the body.

01.Fasting {Ramadan}:

Fasting & Ramadan

Time restricted feeding, whether you’re narrowing your eating window to 8, or 10  hours, has the ability to reset the hands of time and activate the genetics that are hardwired to bring your body back to homeostasis. However, there may be a positive correlation between the level of autophagy activity and fasting for longer periods of time. (2)

Contrary to what some may believe, intermittent fasting isn’t necessarily a diet. It’s a pattern that provides a set-eating window that allows your body to reset its insulin output and better burn fat storages for fuel.Intermittent fasting 16/8 is the most popular, yet there are various types of fasting that also can come with a host of other health benefits such as regulating insulin levels, encouraging cellular repair, promoting gene expression to support longevity and more.

Unlike caloric restriction, where you can lose lean muscle mass, IF does the opposite. Refraining from eating for about 16 hours a day and eating in an 8-hour window burns the fat storages instead. And the fat storages are what provide the energy, not the protein in muscle. And then, starvation activates autophagy, and there is a degradation process that occurs when cells are starved. In fact, when nutrients become scarce, autophagy provides cells with oxidizable substrate. (3)

Before fasting, regardless of your health issues, we always recommend talking with a skilled practitioner first.

** Fasting/Autophagy is Not Recommended for Those Whose Body Weights are in Below of Optimum Body weight and Recommended for those Whose Body Weights are Above of Optimum Body Weight according to chart > Height measured Medical chart.

Ideal Medical Height and Weight Chart :01

Height >> Weight In Pounds
  Normal / Good Overweight Obese
4′ 10″ =91 to 118 lbs. >>119 to 142 lbs. <<143 to 186 lbs.
4′ 11″ =94 to 123 lbs. >>124 to 147 lbs. <<148 to 193 lbs.
5′ =97 to 127 lbs. >>128 to 152 lbs. <<153 to 199 lbs.
5′ 1″ =100 to 131 lbs. >>132 to 157 lbs. <<158 to 206 lbs.
5′ 2″ =104 to 135 lbs. >>136 to 163 lbs. <<164 to 213 lbs.
5′ 3″ =107 to 140 lbs. >>141 to 168 lbs. <<169 to 220 lbs.
5′ 4″ =110 to 144 lbs. >>145 to 173 lbs. <<174 to 227 lbs.
5′ 5″ =114 to 149 lbs. >>150 to 179 lbs. <<180 to 234 lbs.
5′ 6″ =118 to 154 lbs. >>155 to 185 lbs. <<186 to 241 lbs.
5′ 7″ =121 to 158 lbs. >>159 to 190 lbs. <<191 to 249 lbs.
5′ 8″ =125 to 163 lbs. >>164 to 196 lbs. <<197 to 256 lbs.
5′ 9″ =128 to 168 lbs. >>169 to 202 lbs. <<203 to 263 lbs.
5′ 10″ =132 to 173 lbs. >>174 to 208 lbs. <<209 to 271 lbs.
5′ 11″ =136 to 178 lbs. >>179 to 214 lbs. <<215 to 279 lbs.
6′ =140 to 183 lbs. >>184 to 220 lbs. <<221 to 287 lbs.
6′ 1″ =144 to 188 lbs. >>189 to 226 lbs. <<227 to 295 lbs.
6′ 2″ =148 to 193 lbs. >>194 to 232 lbs. <<233 to 303 lbs.
6′ 3″ =152 to 199 lbs. >>200 to 239 lbs. <<240 to 311 lbs.
6′ 4″ =156 to 204 lbs. >>205 to 245 lbs. <<246 to 320 lbs.
BMI =19 to 24 >>25 to 29 <<30 to 39

Source: National Institutes of Health.,© Rush University Medical Center
1653 W. Congress Parkway ,Chicago, IL 60612
,(888) 352-RUSH (7874)

Ideal Medical Height and Weight Chart :02 (In K.G.)

Ideal Height & Weight Chart of Body according to Medical source-BMI
Autophagy Working

2. Low carb diet – keto :{Minimal Fasting}

For some, keto and intermittent fasting can go hand in hand. And with a diet like keto (high fat, low carb) that can induce nutritional ketosis, the body’s metabolic pathways are shifted due to a stressful-type situation. The body is required to switch from burning sugar to burning fat. It then can start producing ketones as a result of such severe carbohydrate restriction, which induces autophagy by using ketones as an energy source. This way, the body sees itself as being in a fasting-type state.

What’s the Difference Between Low Carb and Keto?

The low carb and keto diets are two popular ways of eating that involve restricting your carb intake.

Given that they both limit carbs, you may wonder what sets the two apart.

This article reviews the differences between the low carb and keto diets, the pros and cons of each, as well as which one may be a better option for you.

What’s a low carb diet?

A low carb diet is a way of eating that restricts dietary carbohydrates, mainly from grains, sugar-sweetened beverages, and bread.

Studies suggest that a low carb diet comprises 10–30% of calories from carbs, although there is no set definition. For a healthy person who consumes 2,000 calories per day, this equals 50–150 grams of carbs (1Trusted Source, 2Trusted Source).

When following a low carb diet, it’s common to increase your intake of protein, healthy fats, and vegetables to replace the carbs and promote fullness.

Also, by restricting carbs, you eliminate many high calorie foods from your diet. All these factors may work together to reduce your overall calorie intake and promote weight loss (3Trusted Source, 4Trusted Source).

A low carb diet has been linked to several health benefits in people with diabetes, including weight loss and improved blood sugar control and cardiovascular risk factors (5Trusted Source).

It’s also commonly used to induce weight loss (6Trusted Source, 7).

While a low carb diet may not be for everyone, it can be a viable weight

loss option for most healthy people.

Low carb pros and cons {The pros and cons of something are its advantages and disadvantages, which you consider carefully so that you can make a sensible decision}

Pros

  • may promote weight loss (3Trusted Source, 4Trusted Source),eliminates many processed high carb foods,can be sustained long term,less extreme adaptation phase than keto,less restrictive and easier to follow than keto

Cons

  • you may feel weak or experience constipation,limits food options,limits fruit intake,may impact micronutrient intake

Summary : A low carb diet restricts carbs, such as grains, rice, and starchy vegetables, to 10–30% of your overall calorie intake, which may lead to weight loss. You should consider the diet’s pros and cons before starting it.

What’s keto?

The ketogenic — or keto — diet is a very low carb, high fat diet that has gained popularity in recent years.

The keto diet has several therapeutic properties, such as helping treat refractory epilepsy. Promising research shows it may also impair the growth of certain types of cancer. Furthermore, some people utilize it to lose weight (8Trusted Source, 9Trusted Source, 10Trusted Source).

When following a keto diet, the goal is to reach nutritional ketosis. In this state, your body produces ketones from fat in your liver and uses fat as its main fuel source instead of carbs.

This is achieved by consuming fewer than 50 grams of carbs per day while keeping protein intake moderate and increasing fat intake drastically.

A standard keto diet is restrictive and may not be a practical long-term option for those looking to lose weight and improve their health.

Keto pros and cons

Pros

Cons

  • constipation is common due to low fiber intake
  • long-term data is limited
  • risk of the keto flu, which may include headaches, fatigue, brain fog, irritability, and lack of motivation
  • limits fruit intake
  • may be difficult to stick to for long periods

Summary

The keto diet restricts carbs to 50 grams or fewer per day. This puts your body in a state of nutritional ketosis, which promotes the use of fat as a primary fuel source. The diet’s pros and cons should be considered before starting it.

Which is better for most people?

When it comes to choosing between the low carb and keto diets, there are several factors to consider.

The main difference between these diets is carbohydrate intake. On a low carb diet, you typically eat 50–150 grams of carbs per day, but on the keto diet, daily carb intake is restricted to fewer than 50 grams.

Another main difference is protein intake. With low carb diets, protein intake may be high, but with keto diets, protein intake should be moderate at around 20% of total calories. This is because excessive protein intake can prevent ketosis (13Trusted Source).

Additionally, fat intake tends to be significantly higher on the keto diet, as fats replace carbs and protein.

The keto diet may be too restrictive for most people, leading to poor long-term adherence. Furthermore, the keto diet is more likely to cause unwanted side effects (13Trusted Source).

Therefore, a low carb diet is likely a better option for most people.

That said, it’s important to consult your healthcare provider before starting any diet to reduce your risk of complications.

Summary : While both diets limit carbs to varying degrees, the keto diet is more restrictive. For the majority of the population, the low carb diet appears to be more sustainable in the long term.

3. Restricting protein for several days :{Minimal Fasting}

It takes extra energy to digest animal-based protein, and many people don’t have enough hydrochloric acid to support the massive amounts of animal protein we eat each day. Restricting protein, or limiting protein for several days, can help boost digestion and immunity by allowing the body to recycle protein.

Bacteria and other disease-causing microorganisms need certain amino acids for their survival. Amino acids come from protein-rich foods. In our own bodies, protein provides us with building blocks to produce things like cells, greater muscle mass, and even neurotransmitters. However, a moderate amount of protein is enough to do the job.

Too much protein in the diet creates surplus. This ends up giving disease-causing bacteria the building blocks that they need in order to thrive (4).  When we restrict our protein and occasionally even eliminate it for a day or two, we actually give our immune system the chance to perform autophagy.

And “junk proteins,” which have lost function, can accumulate in our body. When protein is scarce or when we restrict dietary protein, cells turn on this recycling process. They begin to break down these junk proteins into usable amino acids.  Autophagy has been found to improve the health of cells and to promote longevity (5) (6).

This doesn’t mean that we believe you should completely omit animal protein from your diet, thinking you would be in a constant state of autophagy. One of the 7 principles behind the Body Ecology diet is the 80/20 principle. Eighty percent of what you eat should be from the land, the ocean, and fermented vegetables, while the other 20% should come from animal proteins OR grain-like seeds (not both in one meal).

4. Exercise :

It’s evident that exercise can come with a host of benefits, and autophagy is definitely one of them. Studies in humans have shown that aerobic exercise, including eccentric and concentric exercise can activate autophagy in skeletal muscle (7). In fact, the role that exercise has on diabetes has been shown to be dependent on autophagy induction (8).

Since exercise can have a similar effect on the demands of energy in cells, Dr. Beth Levine and her team even conducted a study with mice that showed evidence of increased autophagy after 30 minutes of running on treadmills.

Autophagy {Self Eating} and Fasting{Ramadan}:  Potential Health Benefit Chain You Must Need:

Many clinical and anecdotal studies are showing the positive outcomes that can result from autophagy such as…

  1. Lowering Risk of neurodegeneration, namely Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s (7)
  2. Lowering Risk of coronary artery disease and diabetes (8)
  3. Significantly changing blood cholesterol levels (9)
  4. Helping suppress tumors, but it may also have an adverse effect by promoting metastasis (10)
  5. Slowing down the aging process (11)
  6. Providing mitochondria support to cells damaged by oxidative stress
  7. Increasing immune defense (12)
  8. Providing cells with molecular building blocks and energy
  9. Recycling damaged proteins, organelles and aggregates
  10. Regulating functions of cells’ mitochondria, which help produce energy but can be damaged by oxidative stress
  11. Clearing damaged endoplasmic reticulum and peroxisomes
  12. Protecting the nervous system and encouraging growth of brain and nerve cells. Autophagy seems to improve cognitive function, brain structure and neuroplasticity.
  13. Supporting growth of heart cells and protecting against heart disease
  14. Enhancing the immune system by eliminating intracellular pathogens
  15. Defending against misfolded, toxic proteins that contribute to a number of amyloid diseases
  16. Protecting stability of DNA
  17. Preventing damage to healthy tissues and organs (known as necrosis)
  18. Potentially fighting against cancer, neurodegenerative disease and other illnesses.
  19. Autophagy is developing Reproduction System: Autophagy is a fundamental process that exists in all eukaryotic organisms, with a primary function of catabolizing undesirable components to provide energy and essential materials. Increasing evidence illustrates that autophagy is invovled in a broad range of cellular events within the male reproductive system.Autophagy appears to play an important role in the normal development and maintenance of homeostasis in a variety of tissues, including the female reproductive tract.
  20.  Autophagy in Liver Diseases: Autophagy is a cellular process for lysosomal degradation of subcellular substances. The process has two main functions: to eliminate potentially hazardous or dysfunctional organelles or proteins, and to obtain energy and new building blocks for protein synthesis.Autophagy is a dynamic process with multiple steps and a complex regulation that interacts with many molecular pathways involved in cellular proliferation, apoptosis or response to cellular stress. For these reasons, autophagy has been described to be altered in liver disease. Hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) viruses have been demonstrated to take advantage of the autophagy machinery for their own replication.
  21. Autophagy in Kidney Diseases: Chronic kidney diseases (CKD), a common pathway of various glomerular diseases, which carries great morbidity and mortality to people. CKD is characterized by progressive kidney fibrosis and remodeling. CKD is also associated with the depletion of glomerular and tubular cells. Autophagy is a highly conserved process that degrades cellular long-lived proteins and organelles. It plays an important role in both normal and disease states, including immunity, inflammation, and adaptation to stress. Evidence has indicated that impaired autophagic activity is involved in the development of CKD. Here, we review the progress in our understanding of the role of autophagy in the development and progression of CKD. Targeting the autophagic signaling pathways may be a therapeutic strategy for CKD.
  22. Autophagy Restricts HIV-1 Infection by Selectively Degrading Tat in CD4+ T Lymphocytes (AIDS): Autophagy is recognized as one of the most ancient and conserved mechanisms of cellular defense against invading pathogens. Cross talk between HIV-1 and autophagy has been demonstrated depending on the virally challenged cell type, and HIV-1 has evolved strategies to block this process to replicate efficiently. However, the mechanisms by which autophagy restricts HIV-1 infection remain to be elucidated. Here, we report that the HIV-1 transactivator Tat, a protein essential for viral replication, is specifically degraded by autophagy in CD4+ T lymphocytes. Both Tat present in infected cells and incoming Tat secreted from infected cells are targeted for autophagy degradation through a ubiquitin-independent interaction with the autophagy receptor p62/SQSTM1. This study is the first to demonstrate that selective autophagy can be an antiviral process by degrading a viral transactivator. In addition, the results could help in the design of new therapies against HIV-1 by specifically targeting this mechanism.
Autophagy Protects Aids

Nutritional Genomic Essential Summary:

Autophagy can be beneficial for those with specific health conditions or those who want to optimize homeostasis. It is a recycling process that is induced when the body is under stress from being nutrient deficient, usually as a result of fasting. Autophagy is a recycling process where the body recycles what it can from damaged cells and discards what it doesn’t need. Studies are suggesting that there are many benefits to autophagy including helping neurodegeneration, diabetes, heart disease, premature aging and longevity.

If you are pregnant, we do not recommend intermittent fasting.

Because of the promising studies showing the benefits, research is currently being conducted on the potential of producing drugs that target autophagy in various diseases.

How to renew your body: Fasting and autophagy :

Yoshinori Ohsumi

On 2016, the Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institutet awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine to Yoshinori Ohsumi for his discoveries of mechanisms for autophagy.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2016 was awarded to Yoshinori Ohsumi “for his discoveries of mechanisms for autophagy.”

There is a similar, better known process called apoptosis also known as programmed cell death. Cells, after a certain number of division, are programmed to die. While this may sound kind of macabre at first, realize that this process is essential in maintaining good health. For example, suppose you own a car. You love this car. You have great memories in it. You love to ride it.

But after a few years, it starts to look kind of beat up. After a few more, it’s not looking so great. The car is costing you thousands of dollars every year to maintain. It’s breaking down all the time. Is it better to keep it around when it’s nothing but a hunk of junk? Obviously not. So you get rid of it and buy a snazzy new car.

Autophagy Works

The same thing happens in the body. Cells become old and junky. It is better that they be programmed to die when their useful life is done. It sounds really cruel, but that’s life. That’s the process of apoptosis, where cells are pre-destined to die after a certain amount of time. It’s like leasing a car. After a certain amount of time, you get rid of the car, whether it’s still working or not. Then you get a new car. You don’t have to worry about it breaking down at the worst possible time.

Autophagy – replacing old parts of the cell

The same process also happens at a sub-cellular level. You don’t necessarily need to replace the entire car. Sometimes, you just need to replace the battery, throw out the old one and get a new one. This also happens in the cells. Instead of killing off the entire cell (apoptosis), you only want to replace some cell parts. That is the process of autophagy, where sub-cellular organelles are destroyed and new ones are rebuilt to replace it. Old cell membranes, organelles and other cellular debris can be removed. This is done by sending it to the lysosome which is a specialized organelle containing enzymes to degrade proteins.

Autophagy Works

Autophagy was first described in 1962 when researchers noted an increase in the number of lysosomes (the part of the cell that destroys stuff) in rat liver cells after infusing glucagon. The Nobel prize winning scientist Christian de Duve coined the term autophagy. Damaged sub cellular parts and unused proteins become marked for destruction and then sent to the lysosomes to finish the job.

One of the key regulators of autophagy is the kinase called mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). When mTOR is activated, it suppresses autophagy, and when dormant, it promotes it.

What activates autophagy?

Nutrient deprivation is the key activator of autophagy. Remember that glucagon is kind of the opposite hormone to insulin. It’s like the game we played as kids – ‘opposite day’. If insulin goes up, glucagon goes down. If insulin goes down, glucagon goes up. As we eat, insulin goes up and glucagon goes down. When we don’t eat (fast) insulin goes down and glucagon goes up. This increase in glucagon stimulates the process of autophagy. In fact, fasting (raises glucagon) provides the greatest known boost to autophagy.

This is in essence a form of cellular cleansing. The body identifies old and substandard cellular equipment and marks it for destruction. It is the accumulation of all this junk that may be responsible for many of the effects of aging.

Fasting is actually far more beneficial than just stimulating autophagy. It does two good things. By stimulating autophagy, we are clearing out all our old, junky proteins and cellular parts. At the same time, fasting also stimulates growth hormone, which tells our body to start producing some new snazzy parts for the body. We are really giving our bodies the complete renovation.

You need to get rid of the old stuff before you can put in new stuff. Think about renovating your kitchen. If you have old, crappy 1970s style lime green cabinets sitting around, you need to junk them before putting in some new ones. So the process of destruction (removal) is just as important as the process of creation. If you simply tried to put in new cabinets without taking out the old ones, it would be pretty fugly. So fasting may in some ways reverse the aging process, by getting rid of old cellular junk and replacing it with new parts.

A highly controlled process

Autophagy is a highly regulated process. If it runs amok, out of control, this would be detrimental, so it must be carefully controlled. In mammalian cells, total depletion of amino acids is a strong signal for autophagy, but the role of individual amino acids is more variable. However, the plasma amino acid levels vary only a little. Amino acid signals and growth factor / insulin signals are thought to converge on the mTOR pathway – sometimes called the master regulator of nutrient signalling.

So, during autophagy, old junky cell components are broken down into the component amino acids (the building block of proteins). What happens to these amino acids? In the early stages of starvation, amino acid levels start to increase. It is thought that these amino acids derived from autophagy are delivered to the liver for gluconeogenesis. They can also be broken down into glucose through the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. The third potential fate of amino acids is to be incorporated into new proteins.

The consequences of accumulating old junky proteins all over the place can be seen in two main conditions – Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and cancer. Alzheimer’s Disease involves the accumulation of abnormal protein – either amyloid beta or Tau protein which gums up the brain system. It would make sense that a process like autophagy that has the ability to clear out old protein could prevent the development of AD.

What turns off autophagy? Eating. Glucose, insulin (or decreased glucagon) and proteins all turn off this self-cleaning process. And it doesn’t take much. Even a small amount of amino acid (leucine) could stop autophagy cold. So this process of autophagy is unique to fasting – something not found in simple caloric restriction or dieting.

There is a balance here, of course. You get sick from too much autophagy as well as too little. Which gets us back to the natural cycle of life – feast and fast. Not constant dieting. This allows for cell growth during eating, and cellular cleansing during fasting – balance. Life is all about balance.

A Brief Look At The History Of Fasting Through Various Religions:

Autophagy & Fasting in Religions

01.Christianity – Catholicism {Peoples: 255 Crors}

Nowadays, fasting entails a reduction of food intake to one large meal and two small meals that, combined, make less than the large one. No food may be eaten in between and meat must be avoided. This fast is enforced during penitential periods, like Lent, every Friday, sometimes Wednesdays and Saturdays, the Ember days (three days a week for four times a year) and a few specific holidays, and the day before some big feasts.

This practice has adapted a lot over the years, becoming less strict over time. Historically, the “Black Fast” consisted of a single meal per day that was only to be eaten after sunset. Meat, eggs, dairy, and alcohol were completely forbidden. During the Holy Week, which is the last week of Lent, the meal could only consist of bread, salt, herbs, and water. These mandates weakened in the 14th century, however, with the meal shifting to lunch and an evening snack incorporated. In the 19th century, a morning snack was allowed, and in the 20th century, you could then substitute fasting with prayer and charity. Eastern Catholics are a lot stricter during their fasting periods, eating only one meal during the day and avoiding animal products.

02.Islam {Peoples: 215 Crors}

Fasting is one of the Five Pillars Of Islam. The others include prayer, charity, pilgrimage, and a declaration of faith, . Ramadan, a holiday that requires fasting, is observed for a month each year, and during this time no food is allowed during daylight hours. This includes alcohol and smoking. There are also non-obligatory fasting days, which include all Mondays and Thursdays, or every other day, while certain holy days, especially those involving a feast, forbid fasting.

In the Islam religion, the fast begins with setting an intention, which can be private. If the fast is broken, one must fast an extra day, but if it’s broken with sex, one must free a slave, fast for two months, or feed/clothe 60 people.

Fasting is believed to bring you closer to God, creates solidarity with your fasting brothers and sisters, helps you to empathize with the less fortunate. It’s also seen as a way to control desire. Fasting without a spiritual intention, however, is viewed as simply starvation.

3.Buddhism {Peoples: 85 Crors}

Monks and nuns following the rules of Vinyana do not eat after their noon meal. This makes for a lengthy fasting period each day, but they do not consider this fasting. Rather, it is just a regular regime that aids meditation and good health.

There are eight precepts that prohibit other activities like killing, stealing, sex, wrong speech, intoxication, singing/dancing/music/cosmetics, etc. Devout Buddhists follow these rules at all times, while lay Buddhists follow them on every Uposatha day.

4.Hinduism {Peoples: 115 Crors}

Vratas, a religious practice that involves certain obligations, are part of the Hindu religion. Complete or partial fasting is one such vrata. During a vrata period, one must remain clean, be celibate, speak the truth, practice forbearance, abstain from meat, and perform certain rituals. Once begun, a vrata should never be left unfinished, nor should another be started.

Monthly fasting periods include the sunset before to the sunrise after the Ekadashi — lunar phases that occur twice per month. These are ideally dry fasts, without water. The various deities have different fasting days. Shiva, for instance, requires fasting on a Monday, while Vishnu requires fasting on a Thursday.

A strict fast for Hindus means no food or water from sunset the day before to 48 minutes after sunrise the following day, or around 36 hours.

05.Judaism(Jewish) {Peoples: 2.5 Crors}

Traditional Judaism involves six fasting days throughout the year, during which time one cannot have food or drink from sunset to the following sunset (24 hours). During Yom Kippur and Tisha B’Av, the following restrictions also apply: washing oneself, wearing leather, using perfume, and having sex. The other four days of fasting do not have these restrictions.

06.Jainism {Peoples: 2.06 Crors}

Fasting is common among the Jains, who incorporate many forms of fasting into their daily lives, including not eating to satiation. Complete fasting here involves intaking either no food and no water or only boiled water (meant to ensure all microorganisms are killed off). All Jains are also strict vegetarians.

In this religion, fasting is believed to keep the demands of the body in check, uplifting the soul and resolving accumulated bad karma. While one is fasting they should worship, serve the monks and nuns, read scripture, meditate, and perform acts of charity. Fasting is most common on the 8th and 14th days of the moon cycle and three times a year for over a week during festivals.

07.Mormonism {Peoples: 1.7 Crors}

In Mormon tradition they “Fast Sunday” by abstaining from two meals the first Sunday every month for a 24-hour widow. During this Sunday, members of the Church share their personal testimonies with their community.

A look at the Muslim fasting month of Ramadan:

Fasting & Ramadan

This means waking up before dawn to eat, hydrate and pray. Once the sun rises, Muslims abstain from food and drink, including water, until sunset. They repeat the grueling routine every day for a month.

Here are some questions and answers about Islam’s holiest month and how it’s observed.

WHY DO MUSLIMS FAST?

Fasting is meant to bring worshippers closer to God through steady remembrance, reflection and sacrifice. Daily fasting, combined with five daily prayers and extended evening prayers, challenges worshippers to focus on their actions, deeds and thoughts, rather than on material desires and instant gratification.

Fasting is a requirement in Islam — a reset for the mind, body and soul. Muslims are expected to show self-control and deeper spirituality during Ramadan.

It’s also a month of gratitude. By abstaining from food and water during the day, the faithful are reminded of those less fortunate. Each night during Ramadan, mosques and aid organizations set up tents and tables to serve free evening meals for the poor.

HOW DO MUSLIMS FAST?

Muslims must abstain from all eating, drinking or smoking from dawn to dusk each day for the entire lunar month, around 30 days. A single sip of water or coffee, or a puff of a cigarette, is enough to invalidate the fast.

Sexual intercourse is also forbidden during the daylong fast, and Muslims are encouraged to avoid gossip, arguments and idle time.

To prepare for the fast, Muslims wake for a pre-dawn meal called “suhoor.” Often the small meal will include vegetables and fruits, tea, yogurt, dates and power foods such as beans and lentils. In many cities in the Muslim world, volunteers wake the faithful for suhoor by marching through the streets chanting and beating drums.

HOW DO MUSLIMS BREAK THEIR FAST?

Muslims traditionally break their fast like the Prophet Muhammad did some 1,400 years ago, with a sip of water and some dates at sunset. After sunset prayers, a large feast known as “iftar” is shared with family and friends.

Iftar is a social event as much as it is a gastronomical adventure. Across the Arab world, apricot juice is an iftar staple. In South Asia and Turkey, yogurt-based drinks are popular.

CAN MUSLIMS BE EXEMPTED FROM FASTING?

Children, the elderly and the ill are exempt, as well as women who are pregnant, nursing or menstruating. Travelers, including athletes taking part in tournaments away from home, are also exempt from fasting.

Muslims living in countries with excessively long daylight hours are advised by religious scholars to adhere to the fasting times of the nearest Muslim-majority country.

Fasting & Ramadan

HOW DO MUSLIM-MAJORITY COUNTRIES OBSERVE RAMADAN?

Many Muslim-majority countries curb the sale of alcohol during the month of Ramadan, limiting when it can be sold and to whom. In some countries, people who eat in public during the day can be fined or even jailed, although adherence to Ramadan etiquette by non-Muslims is often a personal choice and not enforced by police.

In the United Arab Emirates, which has large Western expatriate populations in Dubai and Abu Dhabi, restaurants use curtains to conceal customers who eat during the day. In Saudi Arabia, restaurants simply close during the day.

WHAT ARE SOME RAMADAN TRADITIONS?

Once the start of the holy month is declared, Muslims share holiday greetings such as “Ramadan Mubarak,” or “blessed Ramadan,” via text messages, calls and emails to family and friends.

Another hallmark of Ramadan is nightly prayer at the mosque among Sunni Muslims called “taraweeh.”

Egyptians follow the tradition of the “fanoos,” a Ramadan lantern that is often the centerpiece at an iftar table or seen hanging in shop windows and from balconies.

Increasingly common are Ramadan tents in five-star hotels that offer lavish and pricey meals throughout the evening. While Ramadan is a boon for retailers in the Middle East and South Asia, critics say the holy month is increasingly becoming commercialized.

Scholars have also been disturbed by the proliferation of evening television shows during Ramadan. In the Arab world, monthlong soap operas rake in millions of dollars in advertising.

HOW DO MUSLIMS MARK THE END OF RAMADAN?

The end of Ramadan is marked by intense worship as Muslims ask to have their prayers answered during “Laylat al-Qadr” or “the Night of Destiny.” Muslims believe that on this occasion, which is usually observed on the 27th day of Ramadan, God sent the Angel Gabriel to the Prophet Muhammad and revealed the first verses of the Quran.

After these intense nights of prayer, the end of Ramadan is met with a holiday called Eid al-Fitr. Children often receive new clothes, gifts and cash.

Muslims attend early morning Eid prayers the day after Ramadan. Families typically spend the day at parks, eating in the sunshine for the first time in a month.

Video: Autophagy Fasting: The Mystery Explained by Dr. Boz

Yoshinori Ohsumi: What is autophagy? A dynamic cellular recycling process

** Nobel laureate Yoshinori Ohsumi’s lecture at the Molecular Frontiers Symposium at the Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan, Oct 2017. The topic of the symposium was “Science for Tomorrow”. Check our YouTube channel for more exciting science videos! For more information, visit www.molecularfrontiers.org

REFERENCES:

  1. Autophagy regulatory complex promotes longevity in mice. May 30, 2018. Volume 558, pages 136–140.
  2. Mehrdad Alirezaei, et al. Short-term fasting induces profound neuronal autophagy. Journal. Autophagy. Volume 6, 2010, Issue 6., 702-710.
  3. Meijer AJ, Codogno P., Autophagy: Regulation and role in disease. Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences. 2009;46(4):210-40.
  4. RR Brown, et al. Implications of interferon-induced tryptophan catabolism in cancer, autoimmune diseases, and AIDS. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1991; 294: 425 – 35.
  5. N Mizushima, et al. Autophagy Fights Disease Through Cellular Self-Digestion. Nature. February 28 2008; 451 (7182): 1069 – 1075.

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